A FitEyes member sent some comments and questions today regarding what happens to dead or non-functional optic nerve cells. I have replied inline below so you can read his comments and my responses.
I am impressed with the enormous amount of knowledge some of you have about glaucoma.
I was diagnosed with glaucoma two years ago and as all of you am looking for ways to get better.
Q. Can anyone tell me what happens to dead optic nerve cells (ONC)? Does the body flush them away or do they remain in their shriveled state?
However, apoptosis does occur in response to the cell's environment (as noted below). So if you want to call it programmed cell death, note that information from the cell's environment is the input into this program. Something triggers the program to run. It is a response to the milieu and I see it in a holistic way (which is not always how it is explained in the textbooks).
In the eye there is rapid phagocytosis of the apoptotic debris. This means that immune cells (e.g. glial cells) engulf the apoptotic debris. This is a type of clean up process. It helps prevent auto-immune responses and other unwanted responses. However, some experts feel that, in glaucoma, the phagocytosis often extends to nearby healthy retinal ganglion cells, thus spreading the damage beyond what the ideal natural process would represent. This is all my own understanding. I trust that any experts reading the above will offer any needed corrections.
- biomechanical stress [52, 53],
- excitotoxicity [54-57],
- tissue hypoxia (insufficient oxygen) [58, 59],
- altered nutritional blood supply [60, 61],
- mitochondrial dysfunction [62-65],
- Müller glial cell activation (glial hyperactivation) ,
- protein misfolding [67-69],
- oxidative stress [70, 71],
- dysfunctional autoimmunity ,
- neurotrophin deprivation [73, 74],
- inflammation [75, 76]
- (see references below)
Q. There also must be millions of stunted, dormant," hibernating" ONCs, for otherwise how can microcurrent bring them partly back to life?
Q. This procedure is available in Germany but is expensive and seems to last less than a year.
Q. I would like to believe in resurrection for the only alternative is stem cell therapy which is probably a dozen years away.